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Islam means "submission to God in peace". Islam teaches there is only One God, whose primary name is "Allah" in the Arabic language. Islam is the same essential message given to all the prophets, from Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and finally to the Last Prophet, Muhammad, (peace be upon them all). They all proclaimed the same basic Divine message: worship only God, stop worshipping human beings and other created things There's a different between Islam and Muslims!! What's the purpose of life? What Do You Know About Islam? Not what you have heard about Islam, not what you have seen in the actions of some Muslims, but what do you really know about Islam?

Sunday, November 25, 2012

What Do Others Say ؟ Michael H. Hart ...Bernard Shaw

Before We Begin our "A to Z of Muhammad" - Let's See What 12 Famous People Have Said About Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) Throughout the Centuries...

His complete biography has been authenticated and circulated amongst scholars around the world starting while he was still alive and continuing up until today. One of the first examples we quote from is from the Encyclopedia Britannica, as it confirms:

(Regarding Muhammad) "... a mass of detail in the early sources shows that he was an honest and upright man who had gained the respect and loyalty of others who were likewise honest and upright men."

[Vol. 12]

Another impressive tribute to Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him is in the very well written work of Michael H. Hart, "The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History."
He states that the most influential person in all history was Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, with Jesus second. Examine his actual words:

"My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world's most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular level."

[Michael H. Hart, THE 100: A RANKING OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL PERSONS IN HISTORY, New York: Hart Publishing Company, Inc., 1978, page. 33.]

According to the Quran, Prophet Muhammad was the most excellent example for all of humanity. Even non-Muslim historians recognize him to be one of the most successful personalities in history. Read what the Reverend R. Bosworth-Smith wrote in "Mohammed & Mohammedanism" in 1946:

"Head of the state as well as the Church, he was Caesar and Pope in one; but, he was pope without the pope's claims, and Caesar without the legions of Caesar, without a standing army, without a bodyguard, without a palace, without a fixed revenue. If ever any man had the right to say that he ruled by a Right Divine, it was Mohammad, for he had all the power without instruments and without its support. He cared not for dressing of power. The simplicity of his private life was in keeping with his public life."

While we are reviewing statements from famous non-Muslims about Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, consider this:

"Philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, warrior, conqueror of ideas, restorer of rational dogmas, of a cult without images; the founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire, that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?"

[Lamartine, HISTOIRE DE LA TURQUIE, Paris, 1854, Vol. II, pp. 276-277.]

And then we read what George Bernard Shaw, a famous writer and non-Muslim says:

"He must be called the Savior of Humanity. I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it much needed peace and happiness."

[The Genuine Islam, Singapore, Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936]

Then we found that K. S. Ramakrishna Rao, an Indian (Hindu) professor of Philosophy, in his booklet "Muhammad the Prophet of Islam"
calls him the "perfect model for human life." Professor Ramakrishna Rao explains his point by saying:

"The personality of Muhammad, it is most difficult to get into the whole truth of it. Only a glimpse of it I can catch. What a dramatic succession of picturesque scenes. There is Muhammad the Prophet. There is Muhammad the Warrior; Muhammad the Businessman; Muhammad the Statesman; Muhammad the Orator; Muhammad the Reformer; Muhammad the Refuge of Orphans; Muhammad the Protector of Slaves; Muhammad the Emancipator of Women; Muhammad the Judge; Muhammad the Saint. All in all these magnificent roles, in all these departments of human activities, he is alike a hero."

What should we think about our prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, when someone with the worldly status such as Mahatma Gandhi, speaking on the character of Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, says in 'Young India'

"I wanted to know the best of one who holds today undisputed sway over the hearts of millions of mankind... I became more than convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the Prophet, the scrupulous regard for his pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission. These and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every obstacle. When I closed the 2nd volume (of the Prophet's biography), I was sorry there was not more for me to read of the great life."

English author Thomas Carlyle in his 'Heroes and Hero Worship'
, was simply amazed:

"How one man single handedly, could weld warring tribes and wandering Bedouins into a most powerful and civilized nation in less than two decades."

And Diwan Chand Sharma wrote in "The Prophets of the East"

"Muhammad was the soul of kindness, and his influence was felt and never forgotten by those around him"

[D.C. Sharma, The Prophets of the East, Calcutta, 1935, pp. 12]

Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was nothing more or less than a human being, but he was a man with a noble mission, which was to unite humanity on the worship of ONE and ONLY ONE GOD and to teach them the way to honest and upright living based on the commands of God. He always described himself as, 'A Servant and Messenger of God' and so indeed every action of his proclaimed to be.

Speaking on the aspect of equality before God in Islam, the famous poetess of India, Sarojini Naidu says:

"It was the first religion that preached and practiced democracy; for, in the mosque, when the call for prayer is sounded and worshippers are gathered together, the democracy of Islam is embodied five times a day when the peasant and king kneel side by side and proclaim: 'God Alone is Great'... I have been struck over and over again by this indivisible unity of Islam that makes man instinctively a brother."

[S. Naidu, Ideals of Islam, vide Speeches & Writings, Madras, 1918, p. 169]

In the words of Professor Hurgronje:

"The league of nations founded by the prophet of Islam put the principle of international unity and human brotherhood on such universal foundations as to show candle to other nations." He continues, "the fact is that no nation of the world can show a parallel to what Islam has done towards the realization of the idea of the League of Nations."

Edward Gibbon and Simon Ockley, on the profession of ISLAM, writes in "History of the Saracen Empires"

"I BELIEVE IN ONE GOD, AND MAHOMET, AN APOSTLE OF GOD' is the simple and invariable profession of Islam. The intellectual image of the Deity has never been degraded by any visible idol; the honor of the Prophet have never transgressed the measure of human virtues; and his living precepts have restrained the gratitude of his disciples within the bounds of reason and religion."

[History of the Saracen Empires, London, 1870, p. 54]

EWolfgang Goethe, perhaps the greatest European poet ever, wrote about Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. He said:

"He is a prophet and not a poet and therefore his Koran is to be seen as Divine Law and not as a book of a human being, made for education or entertainment."

[Noten und Abhandlungen zum Weststlichen Dvan, WA I, 7, 32]

What Do Muslims Say?Considering the qualities and teachings of Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, testified to by some many people throughout history and even testified to by Allah Himself, we conclude the following to be only a partial list of the qualities, morals and virtures of Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him.

A. Articulate - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, although unable to read or write throughout his entire life, was able to express himself in clear and decisive terms and in the best of classical Arabic language.

B. Brave - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was praised for his courage and bravery during and after his life by his followers and opponents alike. He has always been an inspiration to Muslims and even non-Muslims throughout the centuries.

C. Courteous - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, always put other people's feelings ahead of his own and was the most courteous of hosts and the best of guests wherever he went.

D. Dedicated - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was determined to carry out his mission and present the message with which he had been sent, to the entire world.

E. Eloquent - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, claimed he was not a poet, yet he could express himself in the most concise manner, using the least amount of words in a most classic manner. His words are still quoted by millions of Muslims and non-Muslims today everywhere.

F. Friendly - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was noted for being the most friendly and considerate of all who knew him.

G. Generous - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was most generous with his possessions and never wanted to keep anything if there was anyone who was in need. This was true of gold, silver, animals and even food and drink.

H. Hospitable - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was indeed, noted to be the most gracious of hosts and taught his companions and followers to be the best of hosts to all their guests as a part of their religion.

I. Intelligent - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, has been proclaimed by many commentators who have studied his life and actions, to be of the most intelligent of all men who ever lived.

J. Just - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was most fair and just in all of his dealings. Whether in business or in giving judgment in any matter, he practiced justice on all levels.

K. Kindness - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was kind and considerate to everyone he met. He tired his best to present the message of worship of the Creator instead of the creations to all he met in the kindest fashion and most considerate manner.

L. Loving - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was the most loving toward Allah and to his family members, friends, companions and even those who did not accept his message but remained peaceful to him and his followers.

M. Messenger of Mercy - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, is proclaimed in the Quran by Allah, as being sent to the entire world as the "Mercy to all mankind and jinn."

N. Noble - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was the most noble and distinguished of all men. Everyone knew of his fine character and honorable background.

O. "Oneness" - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, is most famous for his proclamation of the "Oneness of Allah" or monotheism (called "Tawheed" in Arabic).

P. Patient - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was the most steadfast and forbearing in all of the trials and tests he lived through.

Q. Quiet - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was often very quiet and never was heard to be boastful, loud or obnoxious on any occasion.

R. Resourceful - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was most clever and resourceful in handling even the most serious of difficulties and problems confronting him and his companions.

S. Straightforward - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was known by all to speak directly to a subject and not twist things around in his speech. He also used a minimal amount of verbiage and considered excessive talk to be vain and unproductive.

T. Tactful - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was the most delicate and tactful in his dealings with the people. He never scratched the dignity of someone, even though unbelievers often insulted him and maligned him.

U. Unmatched - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, is known throughout the world today as the man who most influenced the lives of so many people during his own time and for all times to come.

V. Valiant - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, gave new meaning to the word valiant and he was always most honorable in all of his affairs, whether defending the rights of orphans or preserving the honor of widows or fighting for those in distress. He was not intimidated when outnumbered in battle, nor did he turn away from his duties in protecting and defending the truth and freedom.

W. Wali - The Arabic word, “wali” (plural is owliya)is a bit difficult to bring into English without some explanation. For this reason I decided to leave it in Arabic and offer from my humble understanding one of the most important aspects of the character and personality of the prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. Some say the word means; “protectors” and others have said “darlings” or “those in whom you put full trust and confide everything” like the Catholics might do with their priests. While still others simply offered the word “friends.” While discussing this subject with one of my beloved teachers, Salim Morgan, he mentioned to me the meaning might be closer to the English word, “ally.” This is perhaps, a lot closer in meaning because when a person gives their pledge of allegiance to someone he or she is taking that person as a “wally” and this is called giving “bay’ah” in Arabic. Allah tells us the Quran not to take the Jews and Christians as “owliya” in place of Allah. While we understand the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) are the closest to us in faith, at the same time we are instructed here not to take anyone as our “confessor” or “intimate ally” or “one to whom we give our pledge of allegiance” in place of Allah or His messenger, Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. The prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, was the living example of the most trustworthy and loyal of all human beings who ever lived on this earth. Anything mentioned to him in confidence would never be divulged nor shared with others. And when he was put in place of authority or “wali” over the people, they found him to be the best of those to be trusted.

X. "X" - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, could neither read nor write, not even his own name. In today's world he would have to use an "X" to "sign" a document. He used a signet ring worn on the little finger of his right hand to seal any documents or letters sent to the leaders of other lands.

Y. Yielding - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, would yield his own desires and forego his own ideas in favor of whatever Allah directed him to do. While considering opinions from his followers, he often accepted their ideas over his own, preferring to yield in favor of others as much as possible.

Z. Zealous - Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was the most zealous of all the prophets of Allah, in carrying out his mission of "Peace through the submission to the Will of God." He truly was the most enthusiastic in regard to delivering the message with which he had been entrusted by Allah; the message of "Laa elaha illa-allah, Muhammadar-Rasoolulah" (There is none worthy of worship, except Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah).

Alief. "AJEEB" (AMAZING) - We couldn't resist the chance for one more letter - even if it is the first letter of the Arabic alphabet
("|" alief).

Muhammad was truly amazing in every respect. He delivered a message of a complete and total way of life, encompassing everything from the time a person wakes up until time to sleep and from the cradle to the grave. And if someone were to follow this Way of Life ("deen" in Arabic), they would achieve the greatest success here in this life and the greatest success in the Next Life as well.

Wednesday, November 21, 2012

montheism - Tawheed


True Monotheistic Concepts – Tawheed, Shirk, Islam
Based on a Document By:
AbuBakr Karolia - December 26, 1999



The term is derived from the three consonants root w-h-d, which serves as the vehicle for the basic concept of ‘oneness,’ or ‘unity,” along with the closely related ideas of ‘singularity’ and ‘uniqueness.’ These root letters are clearly apparent in the numerical adjective wahid [one]. In the words of the Qur`an:
Your God is surely One.
(37:4) inna Ilaaha-kum-la-Wahid
The term Tawheed demands a lengthier translation, namely: “the realization-and-affirmation-of-Oneness. The Unity of God, the Divine Unity, Unity in its most profound sense. Allah is The Real, The Absolute. Allah is One in His Essence, His Attributes and His Acts. Before the existence of the universe there was nothing but The Creator. 
The Qur`an declares that “Nothing is like Him” (42:11). Allah is omniscient and all-powerful. All of Allah’s attributes belong to Him exclusively. He is the first and there is no last but His oneness. He is the First without anything before Him. He is the Last without anything after Him. The end is with Him alone, and He is the End. He is All-Existing: with him there is no end. Allah is now as He was before. He is Eternal.
Tawheed can be viewed from the perspectives of:
    • Tawheed al-Rububiyah – Unity of Lordship
    • Tawheed al- Uluhiyah – Unity of Worship
    • Tawheed al- Asma wa Sifaat – Unity of His Names and His Attributes
    • Tawheed al Itabaa – Unity in the following the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him
Tawheed undoubtedly is the central theme and message of the Qur`an, the Book of Allah and it is repeated in many other verses.
The Arabs in Mecca and later the Jews in Medina inquired from Allah’s Rasul (SAW), who is Allah? Allah revealed in Surah Ikhlas (S: 112) as follows:
In the name Of Allah, The most Gracious, The Most Merciful.
Say, Allah is One,
Allah The Everlasting, The Eternal,
He has not given birth and was not born,
And no one is comparable to Him
In another verse, Surah (chapter) 24:35, an image of spiritual discernment of Allah is mentioned,
Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth………..  Light upon Light! And Allah guides to His Light whom He will.
These verses confirm the Unitary belief, which is the mainspring of Islam and the core of The Qur`an.

Further, only in total acquiescence in Allah’s good pleasure, renunciation of one’s own will, and surrender to His will and guidance is Tawheed made perfect. Allah’s absolute unity is the beginning and the end of the spiritual life for Muslims.

The Unity of Allah is a magnificent and a beautiful concept, and Muslims reaffirm their adherence to it many times a day. To acknowledge the fact of the “affirmation-of-Oneness” renew your faith by frequent invocation of  La ilaha illa llah [there is non worthy of worship accept Allah] will be the means to eradicate Shirk

It is a powerful and effective concept for focusing and organising one’s worldview and epitomising a religious and psychological orientation and authentically expressive of an important facet of the spirit of Islam.

Shirk – Polytheism

The opposite of Tawhid is expressed by the Arabic term Shirk (polytheism), derived from the root Sh-r-k which conveys the notion of “sharing” or “partnerships.” The word Sharik (plural shurakaa) means “partner” or “associate.” It encompasses far more than the more blatant forms of idolatry and denial of Allah’s Unity. The term Shirk means associating partners with Allah, and the related term mushrik is applied to someone guilty of such polytheistic association.

Forms of Shirk:

Major Shirk Includes
  • Shirk ad Du’a – invoking or supplicating to a false deity besides Allah
  • Shirk al-Niyah wa Iraada wal Qasd – having the intention and determination to deliberately worship a deity other then Allah.
  • Shirk at- Ta’a – obeying any created being against the command of Allah.
  • Shirk al-Muhabbah – loving a created being or an object more than Allah
  • Hidden Shirk as:Shirk al- khafi means the hidden, or covert, association of partners with Allah, the One and Only God. This is an insidious form of Shirk.
Minor forms of Shirk as:

Shirk ar- reacarrying out religious acts for worldly gain, e.g. showing off.Shirk at- Tasmee – swearing by other then Allah.Allah says in the Noble Qur`an that Shirk is the greatest sin. (S 31: 14)He also says that He will forgive all other sins if He wishes, except Shirk (S 4: 49)Muslims must understand the term Shirk (polytheism) and be conceptually and practically clear that it is diametrically opposed to, Tawheed, the affirmation to the Oneness of Allah.


 (Surrender, Submission, Obedience, Sincerity, Peace)

Islam is an Arabic word and its means ‘peace’ and submission. Peace from the root word Salaam.
Allah says in the Qur`an: ‘The only 'deen' ('way of Islamic religion' or 'way of life') approved by Allah is Submission….
 (S 3: 19)

Submitting to the divine will and guidance of the One Creator Allah (SWT). Islam connotes total obedience and surrender of the entire creation that obeys the law of Allah.
The whole universe, therefore, literally follows the way of Islam.

Man through submission to the divine will and guidance of Allah, finds Peace in His Creator, peace within himself and peace with Allah’s creation.

The definition of Islam is grasped in a Hadith Qudsi, which explains the essence of the ‘divine’ plan. Allah says that He was a hidden treasure and wished to be known thus; He created Man and Jinn purely to worship Him. A clear understanding of this Hadith is the basis for all creation, which is love, obedience and worship of Allah.

Allah is the one God. He has no partner. He is All Powerful, Absolutely Just. He is The First, The Last and The Everlasting, He was when nothing was, and will be when nothing remains. He only grants life and knows what is in the Heavens and the earth. He knows what is in our hearts and listens to the entire creation. He sent all the prophets to guide man to Worship only Him.

Islam is the religion of Allah, which permeates peace:

Islam simply means Peace.

One who accepts and follows the way of Islam is known as a Muslim. Muslim is an adjective to Islam, which means Peaceful and one who submits to the divine, will and guidance to no other god (ilah) accept Allah.
One of Allah’s name is As – Salaam which means Peace.

A supplication by His creation is Ya – Salaam which affects and enables one to inculcate a character of Peace.
The daily greeting of Muslims and Angels are Peace be upon everyone.

Islam is a religion of Unity, which is in the affirmation of the Oneness of Allah; a Unity, which is a consistent message in the worship of Allah, forms the origin of creation.
Islam enjoys a unique distinction that it is not a product of a human mind. It’s message and meaning, that whosoever submits to the One Creator and follows the divine order of creation, recognising and submitting to His guidance and divine will, are Muslims. It’s a way from the beginning of creation to the end of the divine plan.

Islam is the natural religion of man, the way of nature; it is not associate with any one person, people, period or place. All Allah knowing and truth loving Men have believed and lived this religion. They were all Muslims as all the prophets from Adam to Nuh to Ibrahim to Musa to Essa to Muhammad on all be Peace were Muslims.
All of mankind, like all creatures are born Muslims and invariably obey the injunctions of Allah and Men is further bound as everything in creation to remain a Muslim.


Read More at:

Friday, November 16, 2012


The New Testament

Description: A look at what Judeo-Christian scholars say about the authenticity and preservation of the New Testament.
By Laurence B. Brown, MD

Both read the Bible day and night,
But thou read’st black where I read white.
                              —William Blake, The Everlasting


Of course, Blake’s sentiment in the quote above is nothing new.  The New Testament contains enough inconsistencies to have spawned a dizzying variety of interpretations, beliefs and religions, all allegedly Bible-based.  And so, we find one author offering the amusing observation:

You can and you can’t,
You shall and you shan’t,
You will and you won’t,
And you will be damned if you do,
And you will be damned if you don’t.[1]
Why such variance in viewpoints?  To begin with, different theological camps disagree on which books should be included in the Bible.  One camp’s apocrypha is another’s scripture.  Secondly, even among those books that have been canonized, the many variant source texts lack uniformity.  This lack of uniformity is so ubiquitous that The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible states, “It is safe to say that there is not one sentence in the NT in which the MS [manuscript] tradition is wholly uniform.”[2]
Not one sentence?  We can’t trust a single sentence of the Bible?  Hard to believe.


The fact is that there are over 5700 Greek manuscripts of all or part of the New Testament.[3]  Furthermore, “no two of these manuscripts are exactly alike in all their particulars….  And some of these differences are significant.”[4]  Factor in roughly ten thousand manuscripts of the Latin Vulgate, add the many other ancient variants (i.e., Syriac, Coptic, Armenian, Georgian, Ethiopic, Nubian, Gothic, Slavonic), and what do we have?

A lot of manuscripts

A lot of manuscripts that fail to correspond in places and not infrequently contradict one another.  Scholars estimate the number of manuscript variants in the hundreds of thousands, some estimating as high as 400,000.[5]  In Bart D.  Ehrman’s now famous words, “Possibly it is easiest to put the matter in comparative terms: there are more differences in our manuscripts than there are words in the New Testament.”[6]

How did this happen?

Poor record keeping.  Dishonesty.  Incompetence.  Doctrinal prejudice.  Take your pick.
None of the original manuscripts have survived from the early Christian period.[7]/[8]  The most ancient complete manuscripts (Vatican MS. No. 1209 and the Sinaitic Syriac Codex) date from the fourth century, three hundred years after Jesus’ ministry.  But the originals?  Lost.  And the copies of the originals?  Also lost.  Our most ancient manuscripts, in other words, are copies of the copies of the copies of nobody-knows-just-how-many copies of the originals.

No wonder they differ

In the best of hands, copying errors would be no surprise.  However, New Testament manuscripts were not in the best of hands.  During the period of Christian origins, scribes were untrained, unreliable, incompetent, and in some cases illiterate.[9]  Those who were visually impaired could have made errors with look-alike letters and words, while those who were hearing-impaired may have erred in recording scripture as it was read aloud.  Frequently scribes were overworked, and hence inclined to the errors that accompany fatigue.
In the words of Metzger and Ehrman, “Since most, if not all, of them [the scribes] would have been amateurs in the art of copying, a relatively large number of mistakes no doubt crept into their texts as they reproduced them.”[10]  Worse yet, some scribes allowed doctrinal prejudice to influence their transmission of scripture.[11]  As Ehrman states, “The scribes who copied the texts changed them.”[12]  More specifically, “The number of deliberate alterations made in the interest of doctrine is difficult to assess.”[13]  And even more specifically, “In the technical parlance of textual criticism—which I retain for its significant ironies—these scribes ‘corrupted’ their texts for theological reasons.”[14]
Errors were introduced in the form of additions, deletions, substitutions and modifications, most commonly of words or lines, but occasionally of entire verses.[15] [16]  In fact, “numerous changes and accretions came into the text,”[17] with the result that “all known witnesses of the New Testament are to a greater or lesser extent mixed texts, and even several of the earliest manuscripts are not free from egregious errors.”[18]
In Misquoting Jesus, Ehrman presents persuasive evidence that the story of the woman taken in adultery (John 7:53-8:12) and the last twelve verses of Mark were not in the original gospels, but added by later scribes.[19]  Furthermore, these examples “represent just two out of thousands of places in which the manuscripts of the New Testament came to be changed by scribes.”[20]
In fact, entire books of the Bible were forged.[21]  This doesn’t mean their content is necessarily wrong, but it certainly doesn’t mean it’s right.  So which books were forged?  Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, 1 and 2 Peter, and Jude—a whopping nine of the twenty-seven New Testament books and epistles—are to one degree or another suspect.[22]

Forged books? In the Bible?

Why are we not surprised?  After all, even the gospel authors are unknown.  In fact, they’re anonymous.[23]  Biblical scholars rarely, if ever, ascribe gospel authorship to Matthew, Mark, Luke, or John.  As Ehrman tells us, “Most scholars today have abandoned these identifications, and recognize that the books were written by otherwise unknown but relatively well-educated Greek-speaking (and writing) Christians during the second half of the first century.”[24]  Graham Stanton affirms, “The gospels, unlike most Graeco-Roman writings, are anonymous.  The familiar headings which give the name of an author (‘The Gospel according to …’) were not part of the original manuscripts, for they were added only early in the second century.”[25]
So what, if anything, did Jesus’ disciples have to do with authoring the gospels?  Little or nothing, so far as we know.  But we have no reason to believe they authored any of the books of the Bible.  To begin with, let us remember Mark was a secretary to Peter, and Luke a companion to Paul.  The verses of Luke 6:14-16 and Matthew 10:2-4 catalogue the twelve disciples, and although these lists differ over two names, Mark and Luke don’t make either list.  So only Matthew and John were true disciples.  But all the same, modern scholars pretty much disqualify them as authors anyway.


Good question.  John being the more famous of the two, why should we disqualify him from having authored the Gospel of “John”?

Umm … because he was dead?

Multiple sources acknowledge there is no evidence, other than questionable testimonies of second century authors, to suggest that the disciple John was the author of the Gospel of “John.”[26] [27]  Perhaps the most convincing refutation is that the disciple John is believed to have died in or around 98 CE.[28]  However, the Gospel of John was written circa 110 CE.[29]  So whoever Luke (Paul’s companion), Mark (Peter’s secretary), and John (the unknown, but certainly not the long-dead one) were, we have no reason to believe any of the gospels were authored by Jesus’ disciples. . . .

Copyright © 2007 Laurence B. Brown; used by permission.
The above excerpt is taken from Dr. Brown’s forthcoming book, MisGod’ed, which is expected to be published along with its sequel, God’ed.  Both books can be viewed on Dr. Brown’s website,  Dr. Brown can be contacted at


[1] Dow, Lorenzo. Reflections on the Love of God.
[2] Buttrick, George Arthur (Ed.). 1962 (1996 Print). The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. Volume 4. Nashville: Abingdon Press. pp. 594-595 (Under Text, NT).
[3] Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus. P. 88.
[4] Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities. P. 78.
[5] Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus. P. 89.
[6] Ehrman, Bart D. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. P. 12.
[7] Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities. P. 49.
[8] Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Introduction, p. 1.
[9] Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities and Misquoting Jesus.
[10] Metzger, Bruce M. and Ehrman, Bart D. The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. P. 275.
[11] Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities. Pp. 49, 217, 219-220.
[12] Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities. P. 219.
[13] Metzger, Bruce M. and Ehrman, Bart D. The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. P. 265. See also Ehrman, Orthodox Corruption of Scripture.
[14] Ehrman, Bart D. 1993. The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture. Oxford University Press. P. xii.
[15] Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities. P. 220.
[16] Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Introduction, p. 3
[17] Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Introduction, p. 10.
[18] Metzger, Bruce M. and Ehrman, Bart D. The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. P. 343.
[19] Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus. Pp. 62-69.
[20] Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus. P. 68.
[21] Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities. Pp. 9-11, 30, 235-6.
[22] Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities. P. 235.
[23] Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities. P. 3, 235. Also, see Ehrman, Bart D. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. P. 49.
[24] Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities. P. 235.
[25] Stanton, Graham N. p. 19.
[26] Kee, Howard Clark (Notes and References by). 1993. The Cambridge Annotated Study Bible, New Revised Standard Version. Cambridge University Press. Introduction to gospel of ‘John.’
[27] Butler, Trent C. (General Editor). Holman Bible Dictionary. Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers. Under ‘John, the Gospel of’
[28] Easton, M. G., M.A., D.D. Easton’s Bible Dictionary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers. Under ‘John the Apostle.’
[29] Goodspeed, Edgar J. 1946. How to Read the Bible. The John C.
Winston Company. p. 227.

Friday, November 9, 2012

Bible Prophecies of Muhammad Witnesses of Scholars

Bible Prophecies of Muhammad . part 1 of 4: Witnesses of Scholars

Description: The Biblical evidence that Muhammad is not a false prophet.  Part 1: The difficulties faced in discussing biblical prophecies, and accounts of some scholars who attested that Muhammad has been alluded  to in the Bible.

Preliminary Issues

The Bible is the sacred scripture of Judaism and Christianity.  The Christian Bible consists of the Old Testament and the New Testament, with the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox versions of the Old Testament being slightly larger because of their acceptance of certain books not accepted as scripture by Protestants.  The Jewish Bible includes only the books known to Christians as the Old Testament.  Furthermore, the arrangements of the Jewish and Christian canons differ considerably.[1]  Prophet Muhammad has been prophesized in both the Old Testament and the New Testament.

Jesus and the Apostles are believed to have spoken Aramaic.  Aramaic continued in wide use until about AD 650, when it was supplanted by Arabic.[2]  The present day Bible is not, however, based on the Aramaic manuscripts, but on Greek and Latin versions.
Quoting the Bible prophecies does not entail that Muslims accept the present day Bible in its entirety as God’s revelation.  For the Islamic belief on previous scriptures, please click here .
 It is not a pre-condition of acceptance that a prophet be foretold by an earlier prophet.  Moses was a prophet to Pharaoh even though he was not prophesized by anyone before him.  Abraham was God’s prophet to Nimrod, yet no one prophesized his coming.  Noah, Lot, and others were true prophets of God, yet they were not foretold.  The evidence of a prophet’s truth is not limited to old prophecies, but it includes the actual message brought by him, miracles and

Discussing prophecies is a delicate matter.  It requires sifting through Bible versions and translations, recently discovered manuscripts and searching out Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic words and investigating them.  The task becomes especially difficult when: “prior to the printing press (15th century), all copies of Bibles show textual variations.”[3]  This is not an easy subject for lay people.  For this reason, the best testimony comes from ancient and modern experts in the area who acknowledged the prophecies.
We have records of early Jews and Christians, both monks and rabbis, who witnessed that Muhammad was the fulfillment of specific Bible prophecies.  The following are some examples of these people.

The Awaited Prophet

Pre-Islam Jews and Christians of Arabia were awaiting a prophet.  Before the appearance of Muhammad, Arabia was home to Jews, Christians, and pagan Arabs who, on occasion, went to war with each other.  The Jews and Christians would say: “The time has come for the unlettered prophet to appear who will revive the religion of Abraham.  We will join his ranks and wage fierce war against you.”  When Muhammad actually appeared, some of them believed in him, and some refused.  This is why God revealed:
“And when there came to them a Book [Quran] from God confirming that which was with them – although before they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieved – but [then] when there came to them that which they recognized, they disbelieved in it; so the curse of God will be upon the disbelievers.” (Quran 2:89)
The first witness was Buhaira, the Christian monk, who recognized Muhammad’s prophethood
when he was still young and told his uncle:
“…a great fortune lies before your nephew, so take him home quickly.”[4]

The second witness was Waraqah bin Nawfal, a Christian scholar who died soon after a solitary meeting with Muhammad.  Waraqah attested Muhammad was the Prophet of his time and received revelation exactly like Moses and Jesus.[5]
The Jews of Medina were anxiously awaiting the arrival of a prophet.  The third and fourth witnesses were their two famous Jewish rabbis, Abdullah bin Salam and Mukhayriq.[6]
The sixth and seventh witnesses were also Yemeni Jewish rabbis, Wahb ibn Munabbih, and Ka’b al-Ahbar (d. 656 CE).  Ka’b found long passages of praise and the description of the Prophet prophesized  by Moses in the Bible.[7]
The Quran states:
“Is it not a sign to them that the learned men of the Children of Israel knew it (as true)?”
(Quran 26:197)

[1] “Bible.”  Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. (
[2] “Aramaic language.”  Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. (
[3] “biblical literature.”  Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. (
[4] ‘Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources’ by Martin Lings, p. 29. ‘Sirat Rasul Allah’ by Ibn Ishaq translated by A. Guillame, p. 79-81. ‘The Quran And The Gospels: A Comparative Study,’ p. 46 by Dr. Muhammad Abu Laylah of Azhar University.
[5] ‘Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources’ by Martin Lings, p. 35.
[6] ‘The Quran And The Gospels: A Comparative Study,’ p. 47 by Dr. Muhammad Abu Laylah of Azhar University.
[7] ‘The Quran And The Gospels: A Comparative Study,’ p. 47-48 by Dr. Muhammad Abu Laylah of Azhar

Bible Prophecies of Muhammad (part 2 of 4) Old Testament Prophecies of Muhammad

Description: The Biblical evidence that Muhammad is not a false prophet.  Part 2: A discussion on the prophecy mentioned in Deuteronomy 18:18, and how Muhammad fits this prophecy more than others.

Deuteronomy 18:18  “I (God) will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee (Moses), and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall
command him.”

Many Christians believe this prophecy foretold by Moses to be in regards to Jesus.  Indeed Jesus was foretold in the Old Testament, but as will be clear, this prophecy does not befit him, but rather is more deserving of Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him.  Moses foretold the following:


The Prophet Will Be Like Moses

Areas of Comparison
normal birth
miraculous, virgin birth
normal birth
prophet only
said to be Son of God
prophet only
father & mother
mother only
father & mother
Family Life
married with children
never married
married with children
Acceptance by own people
Jews accepted him
Jews rejected him[1]
Arabs accepted him
Political Authority
Moses had it (Num 15:36)
Jesus refused it[2]
Muhammad had it
Victory Over Opponents
Pharaoh drowned
said to be crucified
Meccans defeated
natural death
claimed to be crucified
natural death
buried in grave
empty tomb
buried in grave
not divine
divine to Christians
not divine
Began Mission at age
Resurrection on Earth
not resurrected
resurrection claimed
not resurrected


2.         The Awaited Prophet will be from the Brethren of the Jews

The verse in discussion is explicit in saying that the prophet will come amongst the Brethren of the Jews.  Abraham had two sons: Ishmael and Isaac.  The Jews are the descendants of Isaac’s son, Jacob.  The Arabs are the children of Ishmael.  Thus, the Arabs are the brethren of the Jewish nation.[3] The Bible affirms:
‘And he (Ishmael) shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.’ (Genesis 16:12)
‘And he (Ishmael) died in the presence of all his brethren.’ (Genesis 25:18)
The children of Isaac are the brethren of the Ishmaelites.  Likewise, Muhammad is from among the brethren of the Israelites, because he was a descendant of Ishmael the son of Abraham.


3.         God Will Put His Words in the Mouth of the Awaited Prophet

The Quran says of Muhammad:
“Neither does he speak out of his own desire: that [which he conveys to you] is but [a divine] inspiration with which he is being inspired.” (Quran 53:3-4)
This is quite similar to the verse in Deuteronomy 18:15:
“I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him” (Deuteronomy 18:18)
The Prophet Muhammad came with a message to the whole world, and from them, the Jews.  All, including the Jews, must accept his prophethood, and this is supported by the following words:
“The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken.” (Deuteronomy 18:15)


4.         A Warning to Rejecters

The prophecy continues:
Deuteronomy 18:19  “And it shall come to pass, [that] whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require [it] of him.” (in some translations: “I will be the Revenger”).
Interestingly, Muslims begin every chapter of the Quran in the name of God by saying:
Bismillah ir-Rahman ir-Raheem
“‘In the Name of God, the Most-Merciful, the Dispenser of Grace.”
The following is the account of some scholars who believed this prophecy to fit Muhammad.

The First Witness

Abdul-Ahad Dawud, the former Rev.  David Benjamin Keldani, BD, a Roman Catholic priest of the Uniate-Chaldean sect (read his biography here    ).  After accepting Islam, he wrote the book, ‘Muhammad in the Bible.’  He writes about this prophecy:
“If these words do not apply to Muhammad, they still remain unfulfilled.  Jesus himself never claimed to be the prophet alluded to.  Even his disciples were of the same opinion: they looked to the second coming of Jesus for the fulfillment of the prophecy (Acts 3: 17-24).  So far it is undisputed that the first coming of Jesus was not the advent of the Prophet like unto thee and his second advent can hardly fulfill the words.  Jesus, as is believed by his Church, will appear as a Judge and not as a law-giver; but the promised one has to come with a “fiery law” in his right hand.”[4]

The Second Witness

Muhammad Asad was born Leopold Weiss in July 1900 in the city of Lvov (German Lemberg), now in Poland, then part of the Austrian Empire.  He was the descendant of a long line of rabbis, a line broken by his father, who became a barrister.  Asad himself received a thorough religious education that would qualify him to keep alive the family’s rabbinical tradition.  He had become proficient in Hebrew at an early age and was also familiar with Aramaic.  He had studied the Old Testament in the original as well as the text and commentaries of the Talmud, the Mishna and Gemara, and he had delved into the intricacies of Biblical exegesis, the Targum.[5]
Commenting on the verse of the Quran:
“and do not overlay the truth with falsehood, and do not knowingly suppress the truth”
(Quran 2:42)

Muhammad Asad writes:

“By ‘overlaying the truth with falsehood’ is meant the corrupting of the biblical text, of which the Quran frequently accuses the Jews (and which has since been established by objective textual criticism), while the ‘suppression of the truth’ refers to their disregard or deliberately false interpretation of the words of Moses in the biblical passage, ‘The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken’ (Deuteronomy 18:15), and the words attributed to God himself, ‘I will raise them up a prophet from among thy brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth’ (Deuteronomy 18:18).  The ‘brethren’ of the children of Israel are obviously the Arabs, and particularly the musta’ribah (‘Arabianized’) group among them, which traces its descent to Ishmael and Abraham: and since it is this group that the Arabian Prophet’s own tribe, the Quraish, belonged, the above biblical passages must be taken as referring to his advent.”[6]

[1] “He (Jesus) came unto his own, but his own received him not” (John 1:11)
[2] John 18:36.
[3] ‘Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources’ by Martin Lings, p. 1-7.
[4] Ibid, p. 156
[5] ‘Berlin to Makkah: Muhammad Asad’s Journey into Islam’ by Ismail Ibrahim Nawwab in the January/February 2002 issue of Saudi Aramco Magazine.
[6] Muhammad Asad, ‘The Message of The Quran’ (Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus, 1984), p. 10-11.

Bible Prophecies of Muhammad

(part 3 of 4)

New Testament Prophecies of Muhammad

Description: The Biblical evidence that Muhammad is not a false prophet.  Part 3: A discussion on the prophecy mentioned in John 14:16 of the Paraclete, or “Comforter”, and how Muhammad fits this prophecy more than others.


John 14:16  “And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever.” (American Standard Version)
In this verse, Jesus promises that another “Comforter” will appear, and thus, we must discuss some issues concerning this “Comforter.”

The Greek word paravklhtoß, ho parakletos, has been translated as ‘Comforter.’  Parakletos more precisely means ‘one who pleads another’s cause, an intercessor.’[1]  The ho parakletos is a person in the Greek language, not an incorporeal entity.  In the Greek language, every noun possesses gender; that is, it is masculine, feminine or neutral.  In the Gospel of John, Chapters 14, 15 and 16 the ho parakletos is actually a person.  All pronouns in Greek must agree in gender with the word to which they refer and the pronoun “he” is used when referring to the parakletos.  The NT uses the word pneuma, which means “breath” or “spirit,” the Greek equivalent of ruah, the Hebrew word for “spirit” used in the OT.  Pneuma is a grammatically neutral word and is always represented by the pronoun “it.”

All present day Bibles are compiled from “ancient manuscripts,” the oldest dating back the fourth century C.E.  No two ancient manuscripts are identical.[2]  All Bibles today are produced by combining manuscripts with no single definitive reference.  The Bible translators attempt to “choose” the correct version.  In other words, since they do not know which “ancient manuscript” is the correct one, they decide for us which “version” for a given verse to accept.  Take John 14:26 as an example.  John 14:26 is the only verse of the Bible which associates the Parakletos with the Holy Spirit.  But the “ancient manuscripts” are not in agreement that the “Parakletos” is the ‘Holy Spirit.’  For instance, the famous Codex Syriacus, written around the fifth century C.E., and discovered in 1812 on Mount Sinai, the text of 14:26 reads; “Paraclete, the Spirit”; and not “Paraclete, the Holy Spirit.”
Why is it important?  It is significant because in biblical language a “spirit,” simply means “a prophet.”

“Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world.”[3]
It is instructive to know that several biblical scholars considered parakletos to be an ‘independent salvific (having the power to save) figure,’ not the Holy Ghost.[4]
The question, then, is: was Jesus’ parakletos, Comforter, a ‘Holy Ghost’ or a person - a prophet - to come after him?  To answer the question, we must understand the description of ho parakletos and see if it fits a ghost or a human being.
When we continue reading beyond chapter 14:16 and chapter 16:7, we find that Jesus predicts the specific details of the arrival and identity of the parakletos.  Therefore, according to the context of John 14 & 16 we discover the following facts.

1.      Jesus said the parakletos is a human being:

John 16:13 “He will speak.”
John 16:7 “…for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you.”
It is impossible that the Comforter be the “Holy Ghost” because the Holy Ghost was present long before Jesus and during his ministry.[5]
John 16:13 Jesus referred to the paraclete as ‘he’ and not ‘it’ seven times, no other verse in the Bible contains seven masculine pronouns.  Therefore, paraclete is a person, not a ghost.

2.      Jesus is called a parakletos:

“And if any man sin, we have an advocate (parakletos) with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.” (1 John 2:1)
Here we see that parakletos is a physical and human intercessor.

3.      The Divinity of Jesus a later innovation

Jesus was not accepted as divine until the Council of Nicea, 325 CE, but everyone, except Jews, agree he was a prophet of God, as indicated by the Bible:
Matthew 21:11 “...This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee.”
Luke 24:19 “...Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people.”

4.      Jesus prayed to God for another parakletos:

John 14:16 “And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another parakletos.”

[1] Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words.
[2] “Besides the larger discrepancies, such as these, there is scarcely a verse in which there is not some variation of phrase in some copies [of the ancient manuscripts from which the Bible has been collected]. No one can say that these additions or omissions or alterations are matters of mere indifference.”  ‘Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts,’ by Dr. Frederic Kenyon, Eyre and Spottiswoode, p. 3.
[3] 1 John 4: 1-3
[4] ‘...Christian tradition has identified this figure (Paraclete) as the Holy Spirit, but scholars like Spitta, Delafosse, Windisch, Sasse, Bultmann, and Betz have doubted whether this identification is true to the original picture and have suggested that the Paraclete was once an independent salvific figure, later confused with the Holy Spirit.”  ‘the Anchor Bible, Doubleday & Company, Inc, Garden City, N.Y. 1970, Volume 29A, p. 1135.
[5] Genesis 1: 2, 1 Samuel 10: 10, 1 Samuel 11: 6, Isaiah 63: 11, Luke 1: 15, Luke 1: 35, Luke 1: 41, Luke 1: 67, Luke 2: 25, Luke 2: 26, Luke 3:22, John 20: 21-22.

Bible Prophecies of Muhammad

(part 4 of 4)

 More New Testament Prophecies of Muhammad

Description: The Biblical evidence that Muhammad is not a false prophet.  Part 4: A further discussion on the prophecy mentioned in John 14:16 of the Paraclete, or “Comforter”, and how Muhammad fits this prophecy more than others 

5.      Jesus describes the function of the other Parakletos:

John 16:13 “He will guide you into all the truth.”
God says in the Quran of Muhammad:
“O mankind!  The Messenger has now come unto you with the truth from your Lord: believe, then, for your own good!...” (Quran 4:170)
John 16:14 “He will glorify Me.”
The Quran brought by Muhammad glorifies Jesus:
“…who shall become known as the Christ Jesus, son of Mary, of great honor in this world and in the life to come, and [shall be] of those who are drawn near unto God.” (Quran 3:45)
Muhammad also glorified Jesus:
“Whoever testifies that none deserves worship except God, who has no partner, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, and that Jesus is the servant of God, His Messenger, and His Word which He bestowed in Mary, and a spirit created from Him, and that Paradise is true, and that Hell is true, God will admit him into Paradise, according to his deeds.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim)
John 16:8 “he will convince the world of its sin, and of God’s righteousness, and of the coming judgment.”
The Quran announces:
“Indeed, they have disbelieved who say, ‘God is the Christ, son of Mary’ - seeing that the Christ [himself] said, ‘O Children of Israel!  Worship God [alone], who is my Lord as well as your Lord.’ ‘Indeed, whoever ascribes divinity to any being beside God, unto him will God deny paradise, and his goal shall be the fire: and there are not for the wrongdoers any helpers!’” (Quran 5:72)
John 16:13 “he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, [that] shall he speak.”
The Quran says of Muhammad:
“Neither does he speak out of his own desire: that [which he conveys to you] is but [a divine] inspiration with which he is being inspired.” (Quran 53:3-4)
John 14:26 “and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.”
The words of the Quran:
“…while the Messiah had said, ‘O Children of Israel, worship God, my Lord and your Lord.’” (Quran 5:72)
…reminds people of the first and greatest command of Jesus they have forgotten:
“The first of all the commandments is, ‘Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God is one Lord.’” (Mark 12:29)
John 16:13 “and He will disclose to you what is to come.”
The Quran states:
“That is from the news of the unseen which We reveal, [O Muhammad], to you…”

(Quran 12:102)
Hudhaifa, a disciple of Prophet Muhammad, tells us:
“The Prophet once delivered a speech in front of us wherein he left nothing but mentioned everything that would happen till the Hour (of Judgment).” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)
John 14:16 “that he may abide with you for ever.”
…meaning his original teachings will remain forever.  Muhammad was God’s last prophet to humanity.[1]  His teachings are perfectly preserved.  He lives in the hearts and minds of his adoring followers who worship God in his exact imitation.  No man, including Jesus or Muhammad, has an eternal life on earth.  Parakletos is not an exception either.  This cannot be an allusion to the Holy Ghost, for present day creed of the Holy Ghost did not exist until the Council of Chalcedon, in 451 CE, four and half centuries after Jesus.
John 14:17 “he will be the spirit of truth”
…meaning he will a true prophet, see 1 John 4: 1-3.
John 14:17 “the world neither sees him...”
Many people in the world today do not know Muhammad.
John 14:17 “...nor knows him”
Fewer people recognize the real Muhammad, God’s Prophet of Mercy.
John 14:26 “the Advocate (parakletos)”
Muhammad will be the advocate of humanity at large and of sinful believers on Judgment Day:
People will look for those who can intercede on their behalf to God to reduce the distress and suffering on Day of Judgment.  Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus will excuse themselves.

Then they will come to our Prophet and he will say, “I am the one who is able.”  So he will intercede for the people in the Great Plain of Gathering, so judgment may be passed.  This is the ‘Station of Praise’ God promises Him in the Quran:
“…It may be that your Lord will raise you to Station of Praise (the honor of intercession on the Day of Resurrection)” (Quran 17:79)[2]
Prophet Muhammad said:
“My intercession will be for those of my nation who committed major sins.” (Al-Tirmidhi)
“I shall be the first intercessor in Paradise.” (Saheeh Muslim)

Some Muslim scholars suggest what Jesus actually said in Aramaic represents more closely the Greek word periklytos which means the ‘admired one.’ In Arabic the word ‘Muhammad’ means the ‘praiseworthy, admired one.’ In other words, periklytos is “Muhammad” in Greek.  We have two strong reasons in its support.  First, due to several documented cases of similar word substitution in the Bible, it is quite possible that both words were contained in the original text but were dropped by a copyist because of the ancient custom of writing words closely packed, with no spaces in between.  In such a case the original reading would have been, “and He will give you another comforter (parakletos), the admirable one (periklytos).”  Second, we have the reliable testimony of at least four Muslim authorities from different eras who ascribed ‘admired, praised one’ as a possible meaning of the Greek or Syriac word to Christians scholars.[3]

The following are some who attest that the Paraclete is indeed an allusion to Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him:

The First Witness

Anselm Turmeda (1352/55-1425 CE), a priest and Christian scholar, was a witness to the prophecy.  After accepting Islam he wrote a book, “Tuhfat al-arib fi al-radd ‘ala Ahl al-Salib.”

The Second Witness

Abdul-Ahad Dawud, the former Rev. David Abdu Benjamin Keldani, BD, a Roman Catholic priest of the Uniate-Chaldean sect.[4]  After accepting Islam, he wrote the book, ‘Muhammad in the Bible.’  He writes in this book:
“There is not the slightest doubt that by “Periqlyte,” Prophet Muhammad, i.e. Ahmad, is intended.”


The Third Witness

A synopsis of the life of Muhammad Asad has already been given above.  Commenting on the verse:
“…an apostle who shall come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad” (Quran 61:6)
…where Jesus predicts the coming of Muhammad, Asad explains that the word Parakletos:
“…is almost certainly a corruption of Periklytos (‘the Much-Praised’), an exact Greek translation of the Aramaic term or name Mawhamana.  (It is to be borne in mind that Aramaic was the language used in Palestine at the time of, and for some centuries after, Jesus and was thus undoubtedly the language in which the original - now lost - texts of the Gospels were composed.) In view of the phonetic closeness of Periklytos and Parakletos it is easy to understand how the translator - or, more probably, a later scribe - confused these two expressions.  It is significant that both the Aramaic Mawhamana and the Greek Periklytos have the same meaning as the two names of the Last Prophet, Muhammad and Ahmad, both of which are derived from the Hebrew verb hamida (‘he praised’) and the Hebrew noun hamd (‘praise’).”


[1] Quran 33:40.

[2] See also Saheeh Al-Bukhari
[3] ‘Sirat Rasul Allah,’ by Ibn Ishaq (85-151 CE)p, 103.  ‘Bayn al-Islam wal-Masihiyya: Kitab ‘Abi Ubaida al-Khazraji ,’ p. 220-221 by Abu Ubaida al-Khazraji (1146-1187 CE) p. 220-221.  ‘Hidaya tul-Hayara,’ by Ibn ul-Qayyim, p. 119. ‘al-Riyadh al-Aniqa,’ by al-Suyuti, p. 129.
[4] Read his biography